The most obvious instance where the modeling is at variance with Rembrandt’s style is the hand resting on the staff. The paint was applied thinly in broad, fluidly blended brushstrokes, with impasto in the beret and skullcap and the white and dark trim of the costume. As well as portraits, he produced baroque history paintings such as Belshazzar's Feast. He never regained financial solvency and ended up living on the savings of his daughter, Cornelia. Whereas the features are modeled with delicate nuance, the costume is indicated with a variety of bold techniques. This is one of three self portraits Rembrandt made just before his death in 1669. In 1639, Rembrandt and Saskia moved into a grander house, next to his old friend van Uylenburgh. Trafalgar Square, London WC2N 5DN Book ahead. Groen found quartz in the lower ground layer. In 1642, Saskia made a will leaving Rembrandt and Titus her fortune, although most of Rembrandt's share would be lost if he married. [1] John Smith, A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish and French Painters, 9 vols., London, 1829-1842: 7(1836):86-87, no. Bijdrage tot het onderzoek naar toeschrijvingen, I, de helmen van Rembrandt,” Tableau 5 (1982–1983): 242–250, attributed the painting to Dullaert. For an artist whose face is so well known through his numerous painted, drawn, and etched self-portraits, it is quite remarkable that Rembrandt’s image in this painting was not recognized by early nineteenth-century critics. The attribution problems raised here are threefold. What could go wrong? Some of Rembrandt’s most powerful paintings are of men and women immersed in thought, depicted with bold brushwork and dramatic, shadowy light effects. The light falls onto an old man. When Rembrandt died on October 4, 1669, he was buried in a rented grave, which has long since disappeared, in the Westerkerk, Amsterdam. Finally, X-radiographs [see X-radiographyX-radiography A photographic or digital image analysis method that visually records an object's ability to absorb or transmit x-rays. Widener by gift through power of appointment of Joseph E. Widener, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania; gift 1942 to NGA. 1654/15; Dudok van Heel in Josua Bruyn, Rembrandt’s Workshop: Its Function and Production (Berlin, 1991), 57. Wilhelm R. Valentiner, Rembrandt Paintings in America (New York, 1931), introduction. He began by making an oil sketch on paper, then tore out a section and mounted the rest on canvas. Export from an artist page includes image if available, biography, notes, and bibliography. Rembrandt quickly began to make a name for himself as a painter of historical subjects. [1] The paint and ground layers were analyzed by the NGA Scientific Research department using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and cross-sections (see reports dated July 6, 1981, August 18, 1981, October 20, 1981, and May 14, 1991, in NGA Conservation department files). Closed. Artemisia, Titian, Sin Find out more. 3] Rembrandt School, Man with a Gilded Helmet, early 1650s, oil on canvas, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Gemäldegalerie. Around 1632 he moved to Amsterdam, quickly establishing himself as the town’s leading artist, specializing in history paintings and portraiture. By contrast his opponent is focused intently – perhaps even short-sightedly – on her hand, deliberating on how to play next. The nature of Van Uylenburgh’s enterprise, which was called “an academy” in its day, is not entirely understood, but it appears that he orchestrated an active art studio that specialized in portrait commissions. The background goes back to 1796. This problem is also particularly evident in the superficial black strokes that define the collar of the costume. Rembrandt and Hendrickje never married because of a stipulation in Saskia’s will that he was bound to transfer half of his and Saskia’s joint assets to Titus should he remarry. While Hendrickje seems to have been a warm and caring companion for Rembrandt, the early 1650s were fraught with personal turmoil. She looks down on us from a slight height, her right hand resting on what must be part of the arm of a chair, but which has the air of a sceptre. Ernst van de Wetering (Dordrecht, 2005), 400–401. In 1663, Hendrickje died after a long illness. His painting was influenced by new developments in Italian art which reached the Netherlands via prints, and via his more travelled colleagues. Closed, East Building The National Gallery of Art serves the nation by welcoming all people to explore and experience art, creativity, and our shared humanity. (Paris, 1897–1906), 5:15. For an excellent discussion of this work, including information about its restoration, see Jan Kelch et al., The attribution of this painting to Van der Pluym was made by Henry Adams, “If Not Rembrandt, Then His Cousin?”. The X-radiographs also show an area of confusing brushwork to the front of the beret, and sharp-edged marks that may be scrapings of a former lining adhesive. The differences in the handling of the paint in the head and the costume are so pronounced in this work that I have wondered whether two artists might have executed the painting. In his oil paintings, he represented a wide range of subjects, including single portraits, group portraits, self-portraits and biblical and mythological scenes. After much bitter wrangling, Rembrandt somehow had her sent to a house of correction. Instead he felt that he could learn everything he needed to from the art available in his native country. Being unmarried caused Hendrickje public humiliation when she became pregnant in 1654. She died shortly after, still aged only 30, probably from plague or TB. The rider has been identified as the prosperous businessman Frederik Rihel. It was not an easy climate in which to work. (Cambridge, Mass., 1948), 1: 28. In 1669, Rembrandt himself died and was buried in the Westerkerk next to Hendrickje and Titus. Rembrandt, Titus and Hendkrickje moved across town to a much poorer district, where Rembrandt continued to paint. Read our full Open Access policy for images. Although the general disposition of the figure, standing at an angle to the picture plane and looking quizzically at the viewer over his near shoulder, is consistent with Rembrandt self-portraits [fig. For an image of Tromp from the early 1650s, see Jan Lievens’. Died 1669. 1]   [fig. [3]  [3]John Smith, A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish and French Painters, 9 vols. The modeling of the face, likewise, lacks firmness and conviction. It offered a young and successful artist far more opportunities than sleepy Leiden. While the sitter’s expression, created through subtle effects of lighting on the face as well as the unusual, sidelong glance, has continued to intrigue writers, entirely different interpretations of its character have been advanced by critics who recognized that the painting represented Rembrandt. Export from an object page includes entry, notes, images, and all menu items except overview and related contents. Most likely, a large piece of canvas with full selvage-to-selvage width was primed on a stretching frame then cut to size. A 838). In around 1631, Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam, the most prosperous port in northern Europe, and 'crowded with merchants from every nation'. [1] The ground layer is not incorporated as a mid-tone in the painting. Rembrandt had not even completed half the payments on his house and his creditors began to chase him for money. The weakness of character conveyed through Rembrandt’s questioning expression is also the result of the irresolute contours defining his features. Ludwig Goldscheider, Rembrandt Paintings, Drawings and Etchings (London, 1960), 174, cat. The skullcap once continued farther beyond the rear of the head, and the hair farther outward on the left. no. 65. During the 1640s life became more unsettled for Rembrandt. [2] Layering is complex, resulting in some wide-aperture crackle, especially in the dark trim where dark paint was applied over thick, lighter-colored underlayers. Its superficially rendered form has nothing to do with his manner of modeling hands.

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