In condensation polymerization, a monomer with an exposed H (hydrogen) atom binds with a monomer with exposed OH (oxygen-hydrogen) atoms. The two different forms of nucleic acid are ribonucleic acid or RNA and deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. Each nucleotide includes one nitrogenous base, attached to the 1’ carbon of the sugar. Imagine creating a 5-nucleotide chain using only the 4 DNA nucleotides. Strands of nucleic acid are passed down from parent to child, from one cell to another, and the information within them is used create the proteins necessary for cells, tissues, and organisms as a whole. Dinucleotides such as NAD+, NADP+, and FAD act as coenzymes, delivering energy by transferring electrons from one reaction to another. Cellulose and starch are examples of ________. Purines are double-ring nitrogenous bases found in nature and include adenine and guanine. As with protein structure, the three-dimensional structure of an RNA molecule specifies a unique function in cells, including enzyme catalysis. In cells cellular processes is carried out by nucleic acids like DNA and RNA,they regulate the expression of genes.A nucleotide is made up of three components that is, 2. The process repeats over and over again until two chains combine or another initiator binds to the end of the chain, both of which will terminate the chain. Structurally, nitrogenous bases in a polymer tend to pair in an anti-parallel pattern, meaning that two paired strands of nucleic acid sit in opposite directions. Deoxyribonucleic acid, better known as DNA, stores hereditary information in small segments called genes inside long polymer strands. Inside cells, nucleic acid synthesis occurs by formation of new phosphodiester linkages at the 3’ end of a growing polymer. two fatty acid chains and a phosphate group, attached to the inner side of the membrane, attached to the outer side of the membrane, between the R group of one amino acid and the R group of the second, between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the other, between the nitrogen atoms of the amino groups in the amino acids, a chemical that assists the protein in its enzymatic functions, a second protein that completes the quaternary structure, a chemical that helps the protein fold properly, a chemical that functions as a cofactor for the protein, deoxyribose, uracil, and a phosphate group, deoxyribose, thymine, and a phosphate group, attached to the inner layer of the cell membrane. a glycosidic bond between glucose and lactose, a glycosidic bond between glucose and galactose, a hydrogen bond between glucose and sucrose, a hydrogen bond between glucose and fructose, an extra hydrogen atom is left on the monomer, an extra hydroxyl group is removed during synthesis. Using the chemical convention for carbon numbering in nucleotides, the phosphate group is the 5’ end of a nucleotide because it is bonded to the 5’ carbon of the sugar. Dehydration synthesis leads to the formation of what? RNA polymers perform a variety of cellular functions, including delivering DNA messages to synthesize proteins and acting as enzymes or regulatory molecules in many cellular processes. What is removed during the formation of nucleic acid polymers? Which type of body cell would have a higher amount of cholesterol in its membrane? Privacy Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a During the reaction, water is released (compensated) as the H and OH combine to form H 2 O (water). Our mission is to improve educational access and learning for everyone. It is found in both deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid, the two substances used for creating life and forming new cells. A carbon B hydroxyl groups C phosphates D amino acids. In this activity, you will select the nucleotide and position to form a phosphodiester linkage. Terms Which of the following characteristics is not true for saturated fats? During the breakdown of polymers, which of the following reactions takes place? In this activity, you will select components of a nucleotide and place them in the correct position to form covalent bonds. Unlike DNA, RNA is usually present in a single-stranded form. Besides its use in hormone production, for what does the body use cholesterol? A carbon B hydroxyl groups C phosphates D amino acids They have single bonds within the carbon chain. Polymers are broken down into monomers through a process called hydrolysis (hydro = water, lyse = to break). Phosphodiester linkages form between the 5’ end of one nucleotide and the 3’ hydroxyl group of another nucleotide, forming a polymer with one open 5’ end and one open 3’ end. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an important energy carrier in living organisms. Deoxyribose is a ribose derivative in which an oxygen atom is missing from one carbon; the carbon was deoxygenated. Many single-stranded RNA molecules bend and twist into a three-dimensional structure that includes some hydrogen bonding between nucleotides in the same strand. Which fat has the least number of hydrogen atoms? 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax. What type of protein facilitates or accelerates chemical reactions? condensation; covalent bond; dehydration; hydrolysis; 4. are licensed under a, Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks, Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities, Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes, Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy, Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle, Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways, The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis, Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors, Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability, Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation, Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation, Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation, Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification, Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections, Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids, Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System, Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids, Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions, Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis, Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development, Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change, Environmental Limits to Population Growth, Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior, The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life, https://openstax.org/books/biology-ap-courses/pages/1-introduction, https://openstax.org/books/biology-ap-courses/pages/3-review-questions, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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